Alexandrite is a color change gemstone. It changes color depending on the type of light it is under. It is bluish green in natural daylight and purplish red under incandescent light. Major Sources: Sri Lanka, East Africa, Brazil & Russia. Alexandrite is one of three birthstones for the month of June which include pearl and moonstone. It is the gem for the 55th wedding anniversary.
Amethyst's appearance is purple through bluish purple in natural daylight and red through reddish purple under incandescent light. Major Sources: Brazil, Uruguay & Namibia. Other sources include Iran, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, US, & Russia. Amethyst is the birthstone of February. It is also the gem for the 6th & 17th wedding anniversaries.
Variety Of The Mineral Quartz
One of the rarest types of transparent quartz is ametrine. It combines the purple color of amethyst and the orange-to-yellow color of citrine which grew together and formed a single crystal. Major Source: Brazil. Other sources include Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland, Uruguay, US, & Russia.
Named after seawater, aquamarine is greenish blue to blue-green and light in tone. Major Sources: Brazil, Nigeria, Zambia, Madagascar, US, & Russia. Aquamarine is the birthstone of March and the gem of the 19th wedding anniversary.
Bloodstone is the a variety of the mineral Chalcedony (kal-SED-uh-nee). It is dark green with red to brownish red spots. It is semitransparent to opaque. Sources: Australia, Brazil, India, Scotland, & Russia. Bloodstone is the alternate birthstone for March.
A cameo is a relief carving in which the differently colored layers of a gem material such as agate, shell or coral are use to produce a contrasting background to the main figure or design.
Agate, Shell & Coral
Carnelian is semitransparent to translucent, yellow-orange to orangy red, brownish red or brownish orange. Sources: Brazil, India, and Uruguay.
Variety Of The Mineral Chalcedony
Chalcedony (kal-SED-uh-nee) is semitransparent to opaque. It comes in all colors and is iridescent. Some examples are carnelian, bloodstone and jasper. Most varieties are plentiful which includes: fire agate, iris agate, chrysoprase, chrysocolla, and amethystine chalcedony are limited to scare. These gemstones come from numerous countries around the world.
Chrysoprase is semitransparent to translucent, light to medium yellowish green. Typical cutting styles include cabochons, carvings, and beads. Sources: Australia, India, Czechoslovakia, & US.
Variety Of The Mineral Chalcedony
Citrine is a variety of the mineral quartz. Its appearance is transparent. Citrine has been cut and faceted over 1,000 carats. It is the 13th wedding anniversary gemstone. It is also a substitute birthstone for November. Yellow topaz is the official November birthstone. Color range is yellow to orange to brownish orange. Major source: Brazil. Other sources: Bolivia & Spain.
Coral is an organic material; it is the remains of a colony of tiny marine animals. It is semi translucent to opaque. Colors include light pink to dark red, orange, white and cream colors. Rare colors are blue and purple. Typical cutting styles include carvings, cabochons, beads, polished and drilled branch segments strung as necklaces. Major sources: Australia, Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Mediterranean Sea along the coasts of Algeria, France, Italy, Morocco, and Tunisia; US, and Ireland.
Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl. It's appearance is transparent, light to very dark green to very strongly bluish green. Typical cutting styles include faceted, cabochons, and carvings. The availability in fine quality is limited to scarce. Emerald is the May birthstone. Major Sources: Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Russia, Australia. Montana is also known for fine quality emeralds.
Garnet is a "group" made up of several mineral species. Included in this group is Almandite Garnet, Andradite Garnet, Grossularite Garnet, Hydrogossular Garnet, Malaia and Color Change Garnets, Pyrope Garnet, and Spessartite Garnet. Major Sources: numerous countries from around the world, depending on the type of garnet.
Hematite is a mineral species. Its appearance is opaque, dark gray to black. Typical cutting styles for hematite include rose cuts, cameos, intaglios, cabochons, and beads. Sources: England, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and US.
Iolite (EYE-oh-lite) is a mineral species. Appearance is transparent to translucent. Typical cutting styles include faceted and cabochons. The color range is violetish blue through slightly violetish blue. They also may occur colorless, yellowish white, green, gray, or brown. These colors are very rarely used for gem purposes. Availability is limited. Iolite is designated as the 21st wedding anniversary gemstone. Major Sources: India, Tanzania, Brazil, Sri Lanka. Other Sources: Myanmar, Finland, Madagascar, Namibia, and Norway.
Jadeite Jade is one of two minerals commonly called jade. The other mineral is nephrite jade. Jadeite Jade's appearance is semitransparent to opaque. Jadeite colors include white, green, yellow to reddish orange, brown, gray, black, light purple (lavender); often mottled. The finest green color of Jadeite is often less than 1 carat. Typical Cutting Styles: cabochons, beads, and carvings. Major Source: Myanmar.
One Of Two Minerals Called Jade
Lapis Lazuli is a rock. It is primarily made up of lazurite, calcite, and pyrite. It may also contain hauynite, sodalite with traces of diopside, augite, mica, and hornblende. Lapis is semi translucent to opaque, medium to dark, slightly greenish blue to violets blue. It is often veined or flecked with pyrite and as well as white to gray calcite inclusions. Major Sources: Afghanistan, Chile and Russia.
Malachite is opaque (generally). Its appearance is vivid, bluish green to green. It is often banded in two or more tones of green. Malachite is is used in carvings, beads, cabochons, tablets, and inlays. Sources: Zaire, Australia, England, France, Namibia, Romania, South Africa, US, Russia, and Zimbabwe.
Pyrite is considered a gem material which is often used under the name "marcasite". Its appearance is opaque with a metallic yellow brassy appearance. Although marcasite is used in jewelry, pyrite is used much more often because marcasite is less stable which makes less suitable for jewelry. Marcasite is well know by the name Fool's Gold. Sources: Brazil, Peru, and US.
Mineral Used Under The Name Pyrite
Moonstone is the mineral orthoclase which is a species in the feldspar group. Its appearance is transparent to opaque. It usually colorless to white but occasionally green, orange, yellow to brown, gray to nearly black. Moonstone has a white billowy effect which is called adularescence. When exposed to direct light a white band like cat's eye can be seen moving back and forth across the gemstone as it moves. This is called chatoyancy. It is also known for asterism which creates a star in some moonstones, again, when under direct light. Moonstone is often cut as cabochons, beads, and carvings. Major Sources: Sri Lanka, Myanmar, India. Others: Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Tanzania, and US.
Morganite is a pink variety of the mineral beryl. Its appearance is light reddish orange to light purplish red. The typical size range for morganite is 1 to 20 carats, faceted. Cuttings styles are both faceted and cabochon. Major Sources: Brazil, Afghanistan, Madagascar, and US.
Onyx is a variety of the mineral chalcedony. "Black onyx" is terminology used in the jewelry industry to describe chalcedony with a solid black color. Its appearance is opaque. Typical cutting styles are cabochon, tablet, faceted and beads. It is almost always dyed. It is one of the most widely used gemstones in men's jewelry. Sources: Brazil, Madagascar, Uruguay, and US.
Variety Of The Mineral Chalcedony
White opal is one of the commonly used opals in jewelry. However, opal comes in a tremendous variety of colors and trade names. White opal is translucent to semi translucent with play-of-color against a white body color. Not only is it the October birthstone but it is also the gemstone for the 14th wedding anniversary. Some off the other well know trade names and varieties of opal are fire opal, black opal and boulder opal. Typical cutting styles are cabochons, carvings, faceted and beads. Major Sources: Australia, Brazil, Mexico. Others: Czechoslovakia, Honduras, Indonesia, Poland, Tanzania, and US.
Pearls are organic gems. They are formed in the bodies of certain saltwater and freshwater mollusks around an irritant or parasite, or due to an abnormal physiological condition, and without human intervention of any kind. They come in many varieties and trade names such as Akoya, Cultured Seed, Freshwater, Tahitian, Mabe, and South Sea. Availability: scarce; very few natural pearls are being recovered or marketed today. Not only is pearl a June birthstone, but it is also the gemstone for the 30th wedding anniversary. Major Sources: Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka. Others: Australia, Mexico, Panama, Red Sea, South Seas, Tahiti, and Venezuela.
Peridot (PEAR-ih-doe) belongs to the forsterite-fayalite mineral series, which is part of the olivine group. Its appearance is transparent to translucent. Its color is yellowish green to greenish yellow to brownish green. Typical cutting styles include faceted, tumbled, and beads. Peridot is the August birthstone and is the 16th wedding anniversary gemstone. Major Source: US. Other Sources: Australia, Brazil, Myanmar, China, Egypt (Zabargad), Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and Sri Lanka.
Part Of A Mineral Species In The Olivine Group
Quartz is a mineral species. Some of the well known varieties of quartz are amethyst, smoky quartz, rose quartz, quartz tiger's eye and citrine. There are many others. Appearance: transparent to opaque. Major Source: Brazil. Other Sources: Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland, Uruguay, US, and Russia.
Ruby is a variety of the mineral species corundum. It is a transparent to opaque gemstone. Its color ranges from orangy red to purplish red and brownish red. The term Pigeon's Blood was often used in my earlier days in jewelry, although not as often today, when we are talking about the finest color rubies. Typical cutting styles include faceted and cabochons. Ruby is the July birthstone and the 15th & 40th wedding anniversaries gemstone. Major Sources: Thailand, Myanmar, Kampuchea, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. Other Sources: Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Tanzania.
Sapphire, like ruby, is a variety of the mineral species corundum. Blue sapphire is well known and is one of the most widely sought after gemstones. However, sapphire comes in many colors such as green, yellow, orange, pink, purple, violet, brown, black, gray, and colorless. With the exception of blue, all of the other colors are considered fancy sapphire. When a sapphire is red, it is called ruby, not red sapphire. Sapphire's appearance is transparent to opaque. The finest quality blue sapphires are widely regarded as Kashmir or Cashmere often described as cornflower blue. Typical cutting style is faceted and cabochon. Major Sources: Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Other Sources: India, Kampuchea, Kenya,Tanzania, and US.
Variety Of The Mineral Species Corundum
Spinel (spin-NEL) is a lesser known gemstone to most people but is widely used in the jewelry industry, mostly though, the synthetic or lab created spinel. It comes in a variety of colors including red, pink, orange, blue, violet, colorless, yellow, green, brown, and black. Typical cutting style: faceted. Major Sources: Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Kampuchea, and Russia.
Mineral Species In The Spinel Group
Tanzanite has become a very popular gemstone over the last two decades. It is variety of of zoisite (Zoe-ih-site) which is a mineral species in the epidote group. Tanzanite's appearance is transparent with a color range bluish purple and violet through blue. It received its name from Tiffany & Co in honor of the country where it was discovered, Tanzania in 1967. It is one of three birthstones for the month of December and is the gemstone for the 24th wedding anniversary. Typical cutting style is faceted. Single Source: Tanzania in the Merelani Hills near the base of Mount Kilimanjaro.
Variety Of Zoisite
Tiger's Eye is a variety of the mineral quartz. Its appearance is semitransparent to opaque. It is brownish yellow to brown to reddish brown with a typically wavy chatoyancy (fibrous structure). Typical cutting styles include cabochons, cameos, intaglios, tablets, beads, and carvings. Major Sources: Australia, India, Myanmar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and US.
Variety Of Quartz
Topaz is a mineral species. Its appearance is transparent. It comes in a variety of colors: colorless, yellow, orange, brown, pink to red to purple-red, light to dark blue and light green. Yellow topaz is the November birthstone, blue topaz is one of three December birthstones and is the 4th wedding anniversary gemstone. Typical cutting style: faceted. Major Sources: Brazil and Nigeria. Other Sources: Australia, Myanmar, Mexico, Namibia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, US, and Russia.
Tourmaline is a group of mineral species consisting of many gemstones. Their appearance is transparent to opaque in virtually every color. Typical Cutting Style: faceted, cabochon, carved, and tumbled. It is one of two October birthstones and the 8th wedding anniversary gemstone. Major Sources: Brazil, Afghanistan. Other Sources: Myanmar, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, US and Russia.
Group Of Mineral Species
Turquoise (TER-kwoyz) is a mineral species. Its appearance is light to medium blue, greenish blue to green. It is often mottled and may show dark splotches or veins. Persian turquoise is considered to be be the finest quality. It is intense even medium blue. Typical cutting styles are cabochon, carvings, beads and inlays. Major Source: US. Other Sources: Australia, Chile, China, Iran (historical) and Mexico.
Zircon is a mineral species. Its appearance is transparent. Typical cutting style is faceted. It comes in several colors which include colorless, blue, yellow, green, brown, orange, red and occasionally purple. Zircon is also known as a diamond simulant. It is one of three December birthstones. Major Sources: Kampuchea, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Other Sources: Australia and Thailand.